发布时间:2017-07-13 来源: 演讲 点击:





Reading Comprehension 1

Questions 1 - 5 are based on the following passage:

Eye contact is a nonverbal technique that helps the speaker "sell" his or her ideas to an audience. Besides its persuasive powers, eye contact helps hold listener interest. A successful speaker must maintain eye contact with an audience. To have good rapport (关系) with listeners, a speaker should maintain direct eye contact for at least 75 percent of the time. Some speakers focus exclusively on their notes. Others gaze over the heads of their listeners. Both are likely to lose audience interest and esteem. People who maintain eye contact while speaking, whether from a podium (演讲台) or from across the table, are "regarded not only as exceptionally well-disposed by their target but also as more believable and earnest. "

To show the potency of eye contact in daily life, we have only to consider how passers-by behave when their glances happen to meet on the street. At one extreme are those people who feel obliged to smile when they make eye contact. At the other extreme are those who feel awkward and immediately look away. To make eye contact, it seems, is to make a certain link with someone.

Eye contact with an audience also lets a speaker know and monitor the listeners. It is, in fact, essential for analyzing an audience during a speech. Visual cues (暗示) from audience members can indicate that a speech is dragging, that the speaker is dwelling on a particular point for too long, or that a particular point requires further explanation. As we have pointed out, visual feedback from listeners should play an important role in shaping a speech as it is delivered.

1. This passage is mainly concerned with_____.

A) the importance of eye contact

B) the potency of nonverbal techniques

C) successful speech delivery

D) an effective way to gain visual feedbacks

A)全文三段中每一段的首句皆点明“the imprtance of eye contact。

2. According to the passage, a good speaker must _____.

A) "sell" his or her ideas to an audience

B) maintain direct eye contact with listeners

C) be very persuasive and believable

D) be exceptionally well-disposed

B)第一段第三句“To have good rapport?”即表明此意。

3. The word "target" in the last sentence of the first paragraph can best be replaced by

A) "destination"

B) "goal"

C) "audience"

D) "followers"

C) target作“目标”解,而speaker的目标,当然是指audience。

4. In daily life, when the glances of two passers-by happen to meet, these two persons will inevitably _____.

A) smile to each other

B) feel awkward and look away immediately

C) try to make a conversation with each other

D) none of the above


5. Eye contact with an audience, according to the author, has all the following benefits for the speaker EXCEPT that it doesn't help the speaker _____.

A) to control the audience

B) to gain audience interest and esteem

C) to know whether he is talking too much about a certain point

D) to analyze his audience when he is beginning his speech

D)第三段第二句是讲“during a speech”。而选项 D)说的只是“When he is beginning his speech”,故应排除在外。

Questions 6 - 10 are based on the following passage:

After the very active and successful tenure (任职) of office by the Senegalese president as the head of the Organization of African Unity, it was highly logical to think that the successor, whoever he might be, would have a difficult task in doing a better job.

The Congolese president set to work as soon as he was elected. His first step was to suggest to the dean of heads of state present in the Ethiopian capital, President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia, to summon a meeting of the leaders of countries that lie close to South Africa. Its aim: to define a strategy in order to overcome the reprisals (报复行为) that the racist regime of Pretoria is likely to take against its neighbours in case sanctions (制裁) are imposed by the international community.

President Sassou Nguesso has already undertaken a number of trips abroad. He thus went to Harare (Zimbabwe) where he delivered a speech, on September l,on behalf of Africa before the summit meeting of non-aligned (不结盟的) nations.

At the end of September, he was in New York, for a statement before the General Assembly of the United Nations, and then in Washington, for talks with high-ranking members of the Reagan Administration. He then went to Ottawa, for consultations with leading members of the Canadian government.

The Congolese president's aim, in all these endeavours, is to convince still reluctant countries of the imperious (紧迫的) necessity of imposing sanctions against the racist regime of Pretoria.

6. In the first paragraph, the word "successor" refers to _____.

A) a person who enjoyed a successful career in politics

B) a person who was very popular in the political arena

C) the person who was to lead the organization

D) the present head of the organization


7. According to the passage, Sassou Nguesso _____.

A) is Congolese

B) knew that it was very difficult for him to be elected

C) was elected without any opposition

D) has held a meeting in the Ethiopian capital

A)可用排除法。B)、C)、D)的内容均未提及。况且第二段的第一句已先点出其人是“The congolese president。

8. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A) President Sassou Nguesso has decided to visit as many African countries as possible.

B) President Sassou Nguesso made a suggestion to President Kenneth Kaunda that a meeting be held of the leaders of countries that lie close to South Africa.

C) President Sassou Nguesso went to Harare and delivered a speech there.

D) If sanctions are imposed against South Africa by the international community, the racist regime of Pretoria will probably take revenge on its neighbours.

A) B)、D)的内容在第二段中提及,C)也在第三段中提及,唯独A)项内容未曾提及。

9. We may draw the conclusion that President Sassou Nguesso has been working really hard to

A) prove himself a trustworthy president

B) convince some reluctant countries that it is highly necessary to impose sanctions against the racist regime of Pretoria

C) show to the whole world the strength and power of the Organization of African Unity

D) seek financial support from some advanced countries to p

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romote African economy

B) 这一问题是问 President Sassou Nguesso所作努力的目的,从文中最后一段可以看出。

10. This piece is most probably taken from _____.

A) a newspaper report

B) a biography

C) a history book

D) a Who's Who

A) 语言平直通俗,笔调比较客观,符合新闻报道的文体。

Questions 11 - 15 are based on the following passage:

Another common type of reasoning is the search for causes and results. We want to know whether cigarettes really do cause lung cancer, what causes malnutrition, the decay of cities, or the decay of teeth. We are equally interested in effects: what is the effect of sulphur or lead in the atmosphere, of oil spills and raw sewage in rivers and the sea, of staying up late on the night before an examination?

Causal reasoning may go from cause to effect or from effect to cause. Either way, we reason from what we know to what we want to find out. Sometimes we reason from an effect to a cause and then on to another effect. Thus, if we reason that because the lights have gone out, the refrigerator won't work, we first relate the effect (lights out) to the cause (power off) and then relate that cause to another effect (refrigerator not working). This kind of reasoning is called, for short, effect to effect. It is quite common to reason through an extensive chain of causal relations. When the lights go out we might reason in the following causal chain: lights out - power off - refrigerator not working - temperature will rise - milk will sour. In other words, we diagnose a succession of effects from the power failure, each becoming the cause of the next.

Causes are classified as necessary, sufficient, or contributory. A necessary cause is one which must be present for the effect to occur, as combustion is necessary to drive a gasoline engine. A sufficient cause is one which can produce an effect unaided, though there may be more than one sufficient cause: a dead battery is enough to keep a car from starting, but faulty spark plugs or an empty gas tank will have the same effect. A contributory cause is one which helps to produce an effect but cannot do so by itself, as running through a red light may help cause an accident, though other factors - pedestrians or other cars in the intersection - must also be present.

In establishing or refuting (驳倒) a causal relation it is usually necessary to show the process by which the alleged (所谓的) cause produces the effect. Such an explanation is called a causal process.

11. What the author discussed in the previous section is most probably about _____.

A) relationships between causes and results

B) classification of reasoning

C) some other common types of reasoning

D) some special type of reasoning

C)由本文第一句“Another common type of reasoning?”可推断前面所讲的很可能是其他的推理类型。

12. According to the passage, to do the "effect to effect" reasoning is to reason _____.

A) from cause to effect

B) from effect to cause

C) from effect to effect and on to cause

D) from effect to cause and on to another effect

D)从本文第二段第三行“Thus”开始,到第六行结束,即是对 effect to effect推理方法所作的这一解释。

13. A necessary cause is _____.

A) one without which it is impossible for the effect to occur

B) one of the causes that can produce the effect

C) one that is enough to make the effect occur

D) none of them

A)第三段的第二句话即阐明“a necessary cause”的含意。

14. Your refrigerator is not working and you have found that the electric power has been cut off.The power failure is a ____

A) necessary cause

B) sufficient cause

C) contributory cause

D) none of them

B)根据“a sufficient cause”的定义。因为仅“断电”一项原因,足以使“冰箱”停止工作。

15. This passage mainly discusses

A) causal reasoning

B) various types of reasoning

C) classification of causes

D) the causal process

A)通篇是对“causal reasoning”的讲述分析。

Questions 16 - 20 are based on the following passage:

(Words: )

I hear many parents complaining that their teenage children are rebelling. I wish it were so. At your age you ought to be growing away from your parents. You should be learning to stand on your own two feet. But take a good look at the present rebellion. It seems that teenagers are all taking the same way of showing that they disagree with their parents. Instead of striking out boldly on their own, most of them are clutching at one another's hands for reassurance.

They claim they want to dress as they please. But they all wear the same clothes. They set off in new directions in music. But somehow they all end up huddled round listening to the same record. Their reason for thinking or acting in thus-and-such a way is that the crowd is doing it. They have come out of their cocoon (蚕茧)--- into a larger cocoon.

It has become harder and harder for a teenager to stand up against the popularity wave and to go his or her own way. Industry has firmly carved out a teenage market. These days every teenager can learn from the advertisements what a teenager should have and be. And many of today's parents have come to award high marks for the popularity of their children. All this adds up to a great barrier for the teenager who wants to find his or her own path.

But the barrier is worth climbing over. The path is worth following. You may want to listen to classical music instead of going to a party. You may want to collect rocks when everyone else is collecting records. You may have some thoughts that you don't care to share at once with your classmates. Well, go to it. Find yourself. Be yourself. Popularity will come -- with the people who respect you for who you are. That's the only kind of popularity that really counts.

16. The author's purpose in writing this passage is to tell _____.

A) readers how to be popular with people around

B) teenagers how to learn to decide things for themselves

C) parents how to control and guide their children

D) people how to understand and respect each other

B)本文是对当前青少年的心理及行为加以剖析,强调青少年应“Find yourself.Be yourself”的观点。

17. According to the author, many teenagers think they are brave enough to act on their own, but, in fact, most of them

A) have much difficulty understanding each other

B) lack confidence

C) dare not cope with problems single-handed

D) are very much afraid of getting lost

B) 第一段最后一句“?most of them are clutching at one anothers hands for reassurance” 即说明他们“lack confidence”。

18. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

A) There is no popularity that really counts.

B) What many parents are doing is in fact hindering their children from finding their own paths.

C) It is not necessarily bad for a teenager to disagree with his or her classmates.

D) Most teenagers claim that they want to do what they like to, but they are actually doing the same.

A)文中最后一句明确指出“That’s the only kind of popularity that really counts"。

19. The author thinks of advertisements as _____.

A) convincing

B) influential

C) instructive

D) authoritative

B)第三段第三句“These days every teenager can learn from the advertisements what a teenager should have and be”即说明青少年会受广告宣传的影响。

20. During the teenage years, one should learn to _____.

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